The Betta fish displays a remarkable variety of phenotypes selected during domestication. However, the genetic basis underlying these traits remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly and re-sequencing of 727 individuals representing diverse morphologies of the betta fish. We show that current breeds have a complex domestication history with extensive introgression with wild species. Using GWAS, we identify the genetic basis of multiple traits, including several coloration phenotypes, sex-determination which we map to DMRT1, and the long-fin phenotype which maps to KCNJ15. We identify a polygenic signal related to aggression with many similarities to human psychiatric traits, involving genes such as CACNB2 and DISC1. Our study provides a resource for developing the Betta fish as a genetic model for morphology and behavior in vertebrates.
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