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Marfan Syndrome Caused by Disruption of the FBN1 Gene due to A Reciprocal Chromosome Translocation

Genes 2021
Schnause AC, et al.

Anna Clara Schnause, Katalin Komlosi, Barbara Herr, Jürgen Neesen, Paul Dremsek, Thomas Schwarz, Andreas Tzschach, Sabine Jägle, Ekkehart Lausch, Judith Fischer, Birgitta Gläser

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary connective tissue disease caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) located on chromosome 15q21.1. A complex chromosomal rearrangement leading to MFS has only been reported in one case so far. We report on a mother and daughter with marfanoid habitus and no pathogenic variant in the FBN1 gene after next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, both showing a cytogenetically reciprocal balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 15. By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the breakpoint area on chromosome 15 the breakpoint was narrowed down to a region of approximately 110 kb in FBN1. With the help of optical genome mapping (OGM), the translocation breakpoints were further refined on chromosomes 2 and 15. Sequencing of the regions affected by the translocation identified the breakpoint of chromosome 2 as well as the breakpoint of chromosome 15 in the FBN1 gene leading to its disruption. To our knowledge, this is the first report of patients with typical clinical features of MFS showing a cytogenetically reciprocal translocation involving the FBN1 gene. Our case highlights the importance of structural genome variants as an underlying cause of monogenic diseases and the useful clinical application of OGM in the elucidation of structural variants.

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