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Long read technologies identify a hidden inverted duplication in a family with choroideremia

Science Direct 2021
Fadaie Z. et al

ZeinabFadaie12#KorneliaNeveling13#TuomoMantere14RonnyDerks1LonnekeHaer-Wigman1Amber denOuden1MichaelKwint12LukeO’Gorman1DyonValkenburg25Carel B.Hoyng25ChristianGilissen14Lisenka E.L.M.Vissers12MarcelNelen1Frans P.M.Cremers12AlexanderHoischen146SusanneRoosing12

The lack of molecular diagnoses in rare genetic diseases can be explained by limitations of current standard genomic technologies. Upcoming long-read techniques have complementary strengths to overcome these limitations, with a particular strength in identifying structural variants. By using optical genome mapping and long-read sequencing, we aimed to identify the pathogenic variant in a large family with X-linked choroideremia. In this family, aberrant splicing of exon 12 of the choroideremia gene CHM was detected in 2003, but the underlying genomic defect remained elusive. Optical genome mapping and long-read sequencing approaches now revealed an intragenic 1,752 bp inverted duplication including exon 12 and surrounding regions, located downstream of the wild-type copy of exon 12. Both breakpoint junctions were confirmed with Sanger sequencing and segregate with the X-linked inheritance in the family. The breakpoint junctions displayed sequence microhomology suggestive for an erroneous replication mechanism as the origin of the structural variant. The inverted duplication is predicted to result in a hairpin-formation of the pre-mRNA with the wild-type exon 12, leading to exon skipping in the mature mRNA. The identified inverted duplication is deemed the hidden pathogenic cause of disease in this family. Our study shows that optical genome mapping and long-read sequencing have significant potential for the identification of (hidden) structural variants in rare genetic diseases.

Key words

Optical genome mapping
long-read sequencing
RNA hairpin structure

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