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Improved Spirodela polyrhiza genome and proteomic analyses reveal a conserved chromosomal structure with high abundance of chloroplastic proteins favoring energy production

Journal of Experimental Botany 2021
Harkess A. et al

Alex Harkess, Fionn McLoughlin, Natasha Bilkey, Kiona Elliott, Ryan Emenecker, Erin Mattoon, Kari Miller, Kirk Czymmek, Richard Vierstra, Blake C. Meyers, Todd P. Michael

 

Duckweeds are a monophyletic group of rapidly reproducing aquatic monocots in the Lemnaceae family. Spirodela polyrhiza, the Greater Duckweed, has the largest body plan yet the smallest genome size in the family (1C = 150 Mb). Given their clonal, exponentially fast reproduction, a key question is whether genome structure is conserved across the species in the absence of meiotic recombination. We generated a highly contiguous, chromosome-scale assembly of Spirodela polyrhiza line Sp7498 using Oxford Nanopore plus Hi-C scaffolding (Sp7498_HiC) which is highly syntenic with a related line (Sp9509). Both the Sp7498_HiC and Sp9509 genome assemblies reveal large chromosomal misorientations in a recent PacBio assembly of Sp7498, highlighting the necessity of orthogonal long-range scaffolding techniques like Hi-C and BioNano optical mapping. Shotgun proteomics of Sp7498 verified the expression of ∼2,250 proteins and revealed a high abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism among other functions. In addition, a strong increase in chloroplast proteins was observed that correlated to chloroplast density. This Sp7498_HiC genome was generated cheaply and quickly with a single Oxford Nanopore MinION flow cell and one Hi-C library in a classroom setting. Combining these data with a mass spectrometry-generated proteome illustrates the utility of duckweed as a model for genomics- and proteomics-based education.

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